As New Atlas explains, researchers placed neurons grown from pluripotent stem cells (those capable of becoming multiple different cell types) within a new
bio-ink gel made with fibrinogen and thrombin, biomaterials involved in blood clotting. Adding other hydrogels then helped loosen the bio-ink to solve
for the 3 encountered during previous 3D-printed tissue experiments.
The new structures could interact thanks to producing neurotransmitters, and even created support cell networks within the 3D-printed tissue.
Researchers believe their technique isn't limited to creating just those two types of cultures, but hypothetically "pretty much any type of neurons [sic] at any time,"
Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel, died on Friday, March 24, 2023:
"Gordon Moore, Intel Co-Founder, Dies at 94"
...and chip-makers are struggling to keep Moore's Law alive?
"...Moore's Law is alive and well today and the overall trend continues, though it remains to be seen whether it can be sustained in the longer term..."
But, IMHO, we are already kind of cheating in regard of transistor-count on a chip. AMD uses up to 12 chiplets, Intel 4 slices, and Apple 2 slices in their CPUs, and now the chiplet design enters also the GPU domain, with up to 1KW power usage for super-computer chips.
We have now 5nm, 3nm in pipe, and 2nm and 1+nm upcoming fab process, ofc, meanwhile marketing numbers, but should reflect transistor density/efficiency of the fab process.
We might have upcoming X-ray lithography and new materials like graphene in pipe. What else?
- Quantum Computers?
- Wetware (artificial biological brains)?
- MPU - memory processing unit?
- Superconductor (at room temperature)?
I still wait to see Memristor based NVRAM and neuromorphic chip designs....but maybe people are now into Wetware for large language models, biological brains run way more energy efficient they say...
and, it seems kind of funny to me, at first we used GPUs for things like Bitcoin mining, now everybody tries to get hands on these for generative AIs. There is currently so much money flowing into this domain, that progress for the next couple of years seems assured -> Moore's Second Law.
We have CPUs, GPUs, TPUs, DSPs, ASICs and FPGAs, and extended from scalar to vector to matrix and spatial computing.
We have the Turing-Machine, the Quantum-Turing-Machine, what about the Hyper-Turing-Machine?
We used at first electro-mechanical relays, then tubes, then transistors, then ICs, then microchips to build binary computers. I myself predicted that with reaching the 8 billions human mark (~2023), we will see a new, groundbreaking, technology passing through, still waiting for the next step in this line.
Brain organoids, clumps of human brain cells grown in a dish, can be hooked up to an electronic chip and carry out simple computational tasks, a new study shows.
Bioprinted 3D neural networks are likely to be a promising platform for studying how nerves and nerve networks form and grow.
Scientists propose to develop a biological computer powered by millions of human brain cells that they say could outperform silicon-based machines while consuming far less energy.
The project's ambition mirrors work on the more advanced quantum computing but raises ethical questions around the "consciousness" of brain organoid assemblies